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Strong Dragon Komodo

Strong Dragon Komodo

The Komodo dragon is a type of lizards restricted to a few Indonesian islands: Komodo, Harka, Flores, Philly Mustang and Badar. These lizards belong to the family of the Lorelai, which are the largest surviving lizards of large reptiles with large claws with strong claws and long tails, and the adult length may be more than three meters (10 feet), and in some exceptional cases, it can weigh up to about 70 kilograms ( 150 lbs).

Its massive size, uncommon among lizards, is due to the biological phenomenon known as “island giants”, where one of the living creatures inhabiting an island swells through several successive generations to play a certain environmental role that no other organism plays on that island, and in the case of these dragons The main one across her homeland due to the absence of any other wild predators, so she replaced her and benefited from the lack of competition for food. Some other research indicates that Komodo dragons are the only remaining representative of the vastly deformed ancient lizard populations of lizards that spread in ancient times throughout Indonesia and Australia, and became extinct with other large animals in the late recent modern period (the Pleistocene), mostly as a result of human activities. Fossils of giant lizards very similar to Komodo dragons were discovered in Australia, and their age was estimated at more than 3.8 million years. Fossil discoveries also showed that the size of the dragons inhabiting the island of Flores did not change and remained what it was about 900,000 years ago, a period marked by large Animals in the world, many huge creatures inhabiting the islands ceased to exist, and hominids from the apes began to migrate successively to various regions of the world, including some islands close to the mainland, including the habitats of these lizards.

Komodo dragons dominate the natural ecosystems you inhabit, as an inevitable consequence of their large sizes. These dragons hunt by ambushing their prey, which includes a wide range of invertebrates, birds, and mammals. It is said that her poisonous bite kills her prey for a few days, and some scholars have suggested that the two glands that are in her lower thighs secrete several toxic proteins, that there is no consensus on this saying, and the importance of these proteins is still and their role is They secrete an anticoagulant. The behavior of the Komodo dragons when hunting and snakes are distinct between lizards, the most prominent of which are the prey of the Javanese thrush, as they hunt wild boars and water buffalo as well, as they feed on the carcass, and can sometimes attack humans.

The mating season begins between May and August, and the females lay eggs during the month of September. Usually, the number of these eggs reaches about 20 eggs, and the female often takes one of the deserted heaps of a bird from the pile of birds as a nest for her, and she may dig a hole in her that she lays her eggs. Eggs are incubated for 7 or 8 months, and they hatch during April when the insects are prolific. Young dragons resort to trees to shelter from the larger predators, including their relatives, who are reluctant to eat their own species. Dragons reach adulthood at the age of eight or nine and may extend their life span to 30 years.

Western scientists knew these lizards in 1910, and soon became the focus of attention of people in Europe and the United States thanks to their majestic reputation and immense size, and they were displayed in various zoos. In the wild, its habitat has shrunk as a result of harmful human activities, so that the International Union for Conservation of Nature ranks it among the animals threatened with the lowest risk of extinction. The Komodo dragons are protected by Indonesian law, and Indonesia established the Komodo National Park in 1980 to be a nature reserve housing these dragons and other endemic animals in the country.

Date of classification

European researchers first knew the Komodo dragon in 1910, when it reached the ears of Lieutenant Van Sien van Hensbrueck (a Dutch colonial officer) of the presence of “crocodiles on land” on an island in Indonesia. These animals were especially famous after 1912 when the head of the Museum of Zoology in the city of Bogor (Java) published a research paper on the Komodo dragon after receiving photos and samples of animal skin and other researchers. The first surviving Komodo dragon arrived in Europe in 1927 and was shown at the Reptile House in the London Zoo when it opened then. Scientist Joan Beauchamp Proctor recorded some of the first observations about this animal in captivity at the London Zoo, and she talked about animal behavior in a scientific meeting of the Society of Zoology in London in 1928. Attention to this dragon was a major driver behind sending a mission to Komodo Island in 1926, led by P. Douglas Barden, who returned from his journey with twelve dead dragons and two dragons alive, and his mission inspired this appearance of King Kong in his first edition in 1933. It was Barden himself who invented the name “Komodo dragon”, which is now popular with people. Three of the dragons that were brought in are mummified and preserved to the American Museum of Natural History.

And when the Dutch government realized that the number of dragons of Komodo living in the wild was very small, it prohibited hunting for fun and sport and put legal restrictions on their families, even for the purposes of scientific research. Scientific missions ceased with the outbreak of World War II in the early 1940s, and then returned during the 1950s and 1960s, a period during which scientists were interested in studying the food of the Komodo dragon, its intermarriage, and how it regulates its body heat. Around this same time, a mission was planned to devote itself to studying a Komodo dragon over a long period of time. This task was entrusted to the Offenburg family, a family that had inhabited the island of Komodo for eleven months during 1969, and Walter Offenburg and his assistant Porta Sastrawan (during this period) managed to capture more than fifty dragons and install tracking marks on them. Offenberg’s research radically changed the way foster komodo dragons in captivity, and studies after him shed more light on the nature of the komodo dragon, and known biologists (such as Claudio Chiofi) still devote themselves specifically to studying this animal.

Etymology

The Komodo dragon is well-known in the literature of sciences with names including «Komodo worl», but this name is not very common. The indigenous people of Komodo Island call this animal “Ora” and “Boya Darat” (meaning “Crocodile Land”) and “Piawak Rakasa” (meaning “giant worm”).

The evolutionary and evolutionary history

The Komodo dragon began its historical evolution from the genus of a worm, a genus of lizards that appeared in the continent of Asia 40 million years ago and moved from it to Australia, and there it evolved into a species of giant lizards (the largest of which is the recently extinct megalomania, which reached five meters in length), a transformation that was It is caused by a lack of competition from other carnivores, such as chorionic. Almost 15 million years ago, Australia collided and contacted Southeast Asia, which allowed the ancestors of the Komodo dragon to return to the Indonesian islands, thereby extending the territory of his life to reach Timor Island. It was previously believed that a Komodo dragon evolved from the lizards that lived in Australia four million years ago, but recent fossil discoveries in Queensland (eastern Australia) suggest that the dragon evolved on the continent of Australia itself and then moved to the Indonesian archipelago. The accelerating sea level decline in the last Ice Age revealed extensive continental shelves in which Komodo dragons settled, but when sea level returned to rise after the end of the Ice Age, these dragons locked up in the current islands confined to them. In Eurasia, fossils of extinct species of lizards (from the recent Pleiocene modern era) similar to Komodo dragons, such as Varanus sivalensis, have been discovered, indicating that this animal lived well in crowded environments with competition from other carnivores until the phenomenon of climate change and mass extinction ceased. It brought about the end of the recent modern era.

the description

An adult Komodo dragon in the wild usually weighs about 70 kilograms, while in most families it is more than that – often soaring. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the average adult Komodo dragon male weighs between 79 to 91 kilograms and is 2.59 meters long, while the female weighs 68 to 73 kilograms and is only 2.29 meters long. The largest scientifically recorded dragon was 3.13 meters long and 166 kg (although this weight includes undigested food in its stomach).

The dragon tail of a Komodo dragon is the same length as the rest of its body. This animal has 60 teeth with a toothed edge in its mouth. The length of each one reaches 2.5 centimeters, and its teeth often fall and others appear in its place. Usually, his saliva is blood-like, because his periodontal tissue almost completely covers his teeth, and therefore his teeth tear his gums (as a result of natural conditioning) every time he eats. The advantage of this animal is that it has a long, yellow tongue split (divided into two parts at its edge, such as the head of the fork). The Komodo dragon skin is supported by armored scales that contain delicate bones that act as a natural protection suit. Because of these scales, the skin of this animal is not suitable for making leather products.

The senses

The Komodo dragon-like other members of the fleet – has only one ear bone, the stirrup, which transmits sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. This characteristic means that the Komodo dragon’s sense of hearing is mostly confined within the frequency of 400 to 2,000 Hz, which is a small range compared to the human ear that can hear between 20 and 20,000 Hz. It was previously believed that this animal was deaf, due to a study that showed Tenen Komodo unresponsive to whisper, loud and shouting sound. But this belief was shaken when an employee at the London Zoo (Joan Proctor) succeeded in training a captive dragon to come to eat his food upon hearing her voice, even if he was not able to see her.

The Komodo dragon can see up to 300 meters away from him, but because his eye retina contains only conical cells, it is possible that his ability to see at night is minimal. The dragon can distinguish colors, but it is difficult for it to distinguish fixed objects in place.

Like many types of reptiles, a Komodo dragon can use its tongue to savor, smell and beware of its surroundings through its nasal vomeronal organ rather than its nose. And when the wind is favorable, a Komodo dragon (by turning his head from one side to the other while walking) can pick up a dry scent about 9.5 kilometers away. This dragon has very few teat nipples on the roof of his throat. His bone-armored scales also contain sensitive platelets attached to his nervous system, which give him a sense of touch. They can be in the scales of the ears, lips, chin, and the bottom of the foot three or more platelets in one scaffold.

Biological behavior and properties

Komodo dragons prefer dwelling in dry and hot natural habitats and are usually seen in dry, open grasslands, prunes and low-lying tropical forests. Dragons are active during the day, especially because they are outside the heat, as they show some night activity in rare cases. They are solitary beings, each of whom spends his life alone, and does not seek to mix with the sons of her race except in the season of reproduction or when meeting about one of the sacrifices. An adult dragon can run very quickly for a short period of time, and its speed may reach about 20 kilometers per hour (12 miles per hour). It can also dive to a depth of 4.5 meters (15 feet), and its young children can skillfully climb trees with their strong claws. The dragon may stand on its hind legs and lean on its tail so that it can reach prey that has risen, and as the animal ages, its claws transform from climbing tools to sharp and deadly weapons, as it dispenses with climbing trees and spends the rest of its life on the ground.

The Komodo dragons dug burrows by their strong claws and front posts to house them, and the width of the hole may range from 1 to 3 meters (3.3 to 9.8 feet), and when the dragons sleep at night in these burrows, they keep the heat of their bodies throughout the night. Its sunshine is less during the day, and its massive size also helps reduce its lost heat. Dragons hunt during the afternoon period, and when the heat gets too hot, they take shelter in the shadows to avoid superheating. The places frequented by dragons to shelter from the glare of the sun and the rest of the day’s trouble lie on the edges of rocky vegetation and always exposed to the fresh sea breeze, and one can infer it by the excrement left by the dragons. These edges are also used as strategic supervision points where dragons lie for their prey elk.

Food

Carnivorous Komodo dragons, meaning exclusive food. Although the carcass makes up most of its strength, it snips the living animals from time to time, so it surreptitiously approaches them before they strike them. Dragons also lie because of their prey, so they remain calm and do not move. Dragons do not allow their game to flee from them voluntarily, even if they suffer fatal wounds, but rather try to kill them directly by cutting them into pieces or severely injuring them to death. There were some cases in which dragons killed wild hogs within seconds, and what was said about the pursuit of dragons for their game of long distances is likely that there were cases in which the game of birds escaped from their predators after they attacked them, and then they were quickly spoiled due to the inflammation that was caused by the attacks that occurred. Komodo dragons were seen losing their pigs and elk by striking them with their strong tails. The dragon can find a cadaver or dying animal from a distance of 9.5 kilometers (5.9 miles), by its strong sense of smell.

The method of dodging Komodo dragons is tearing up huge chunks of carcass while attaching it to its front legs, swallowing it completely. In the case of small game, which reaches the maximum size of goats, the dragons swallow them whole, aided by their loose articulated jaws, their flexible skulls, and their expandable stomach. Dragons usually avoid the vegetable contents in their stomachs and intestines, and they produce a large amount of red saliva that helps them swallow and slippery their food, although this process takes a long time, though, so swallowing the comforter, for example, lasts between 15 and 20 minutes. Some dragons try to speed up swallowing by hitting the game in her mouth with one of the trees or force it into her mouth with force, and the dragon might hit his game with a tree of superpower that drops it to the ground. The dragon has a small tube under his tongue that reaches the lungs, which allows him to breathe while swallowing prey that blocks his entire mouth. One dragon eats an amount of meat that weighs about 80% of its weight, then withdraws to a sunny place where it remains to raise its body temperature and speed up the digestion process because if the meat remains for a long period without being digested, it can rot and poison its food. Because these animals’ metabolism is very slow, very large mules can survive through eutrophication only 12 times during the year. After fully digesting, the dragon pronounces a mass of pods, teeth, and hair covered with stinky mucus, known as the “intestinal lesions,” and then rubbing its mists and face with dust or cavities to get rid of the mucous residue, which indicates that these animals abhor their secretion.

The larger dragons of girls advance first, followed by the smaller ones that display hierarchical behavior between each other. The largest male dominates the carcass, and the rest of the males show their submission to him through the body language, in addition to its and rumbling. As for the case of dragons equal in size, they fight fighting like wrestling, so that every male aim to lay the ground on the ground and fix it, and usually, the loser withdraws, although the winner may kill his rival and prey in some cases. Komodo dragons feed on a wide variety of animals, including invertebrates, other reptiles (including small dragons), birds, eggs, small mammals, monkeys, wild boars, goats, elk, horses, and water buffalo. As for the young dragons, they eat insects, eggs, worms, and small mammals. Adult dragons sometimes attack human beings, as they are known for their remains on the dead bodies of the dead, where a few cases in which the dragons dug surface graves and exhumed the body buried there. This custom of dragons resulted in the abandonment of some of the villagers of Komodo Island from burying their dead in the dirt, turning them into muddy lands, and stacking stones over the graves in an attempt to deter the lizards from digging them out. American evolutionary biologist Gard Diamond says that Komodo dragons may have evolved to prey on a genus of dwarf elephants that lived on the island of Flores, the elephant’s elephants (Stegodon). He drinks the dragon by sucking water into his mouth in a way called “buccal pumping”, then raises his head and leaves water flowing into his throat.

Saliva

Previous studies have suggested that komodo dragon saliva contains a variety of infectious bacteria that help it eliminate its prey so that these bacteria cause fatal infections as soon as they enter the wound caused by the dragon with its strong bite, but one of the research published in the 2013 bacteria did not suggest Normal, not unlike those found in other saliva games. It was said that these animals take care of the cleanliness of their mouths and strive to get rid of the remains of food stuck in them after each process of irritation, and in this field researcher Brian Fry says: “After completing the shortening, she spends between 10 and 15 minutes licking her lips and rubbing her heads with foliage to clean their mouths .. This confirms what people mistakenly believe is that the remains of flesh stuck between its teeth rot and produce deadly bacteria. Likewise, it was found that these dragons do not cause deep wounds in their pursuit and allow them to flee to die on their own and then track them for a distance, even if they live for a long period of time, as do the originals (collecting a link – a malicious life). , About her ability to kill her prey within less than half an hour, causing deep wound by her bite and paralyzing her movement, so she dies from shock and heavy bleeding.



The prey that was observed dying because of their blood wounding is often water buffalo, and this can be attributed to the behavior of the buffalo itself – exotic on the islands inhabited by dragons – when the dragon bites a buffalo and the latter can escape from it because of its large size, its instinct is directed towards water And as soon as he does so, his wounds will be exposed to the pollutants that are caused by the feces and urine of the animals, the wound will become infected and kill the owner slowly. The aforementioned study relied on saliva samples taken from 16 captive dragons (10 adults and six newborns) from three American zoos.

Antibacterial immune factor

Scientists succeeded in isolating a strong anti-bacterial (peptide) digestion from the blood plasma of Komodo dragon blood, which is the peptide «VK25». The initial results of these tests showed that “DRGN-1” is effective in eliminating drug-resistant bacterial strains, as well as on some types of fungi as well. And it turned out that the most prominent of its other advantages is to stimulate wounds to heal, whether they are inflamed or inflamed, or whether they are wounds on the thin biofilms.

The poison

In late 2005, researchers from the University of Melbourne, Australia, assumed that Varanus giganteus, and other Urals and Harvesters, could be somewhat toxic. These researchers said that the bites of these organisms cause simple poisoning, the effects of which appear immediately, as it was found that people were bitten by their limbs by perforated Urals (Varanus varius), Komodo dragons, and Varanus timorensis. They had the same symptoms: Tor: Fast in the bite, local clots, and excruciating pain in their elbows. Some of these symptoms lasted for several hours.

In 2009, the researchers themselves published additional evidence to prove that Komodo dragons are poisonous bites. Imaging of one of its preserved skulls, by means of magnetic resonance, showed two glands in the lower jaw. The researchers extracted one of those glands from a dying head dying in the Singapore Zoo and explained them to discover that they secrete several different types of toxic proteins. Restrict blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, paralyze muscles, and urge the body to reduce its heat, which causes the game to shock and faint after a while. As a result of this discovery, scientists questioned the previous theory that bacteria in dragon saliva were what kills their game.

Other scholars have said that the claim of toxic glands in dragons and other lizards is underestimating the various roles that oral secretions play in the biological composition of reptiles and that it is a narrow view of the role of those secretions resulting in a misinterpretation of a false interpretation of aspiration. According to these scientists, oral secretions by reptiles perform several biological roles and their purpose is not only to facilitate the elimination of game, so the saying that the toxicity of all organisms belonging to this vital branch misleads people and suggests a risk that they do not have, and prevents the assessment of the medical risks caused by biting them. It is correct, and it confuses understanding the biological role of biochemical systems of scales. One evolutionary biologist said that having lizards have proteins similar to toxins in their mouths, and if true, they may use them in another function, because the poison is not necessary to cause harm to the dragon bushes, and perhaps the biggest cause of this is shock and profuse bleeding.

Reproduction

The mating season begins between May and August, and the females lay eggs during the month of September. During this period, the males fight for control of the regions, including females. After his victory, the male advances to his female tongue, to obtain information about her acceptance of mating. Females of the dragons are hostile, and their male worms resist their claws and teeth during the initial convergence phase, so the male is obliged to firmly fix his female during intercourse in order not to be harmed. Other male courtship movements include rubbing their chins on the female body, scratching them violently, and licking them. Intercourse occurs when a male enters one of its two organs into the female’s cyst. The Komodo dragons are monogamous animals – in some cases – and elephants form a “marital bond”, a rare behavior among reptiles.

 

Although the majority of females lay their eggs during the month of September, there is a portion of them that does this during the month of August, and several forms of nests may be used to incubate the eggs. One study showed that 60% of them choose to lay their eggs in the hump of chickens Agents are orange, and 20% prefer to place them in phylogenetic nests at ground level, while another 20% prefer to place them in hilly areas. Females dig several fake nests to mislead other dragons seeking to devour their eggs. The average number of eggs in one hatch reaches 20 eggs in total, and the incubation period usually ranges between 7 to 8 months. Hatching is a burdensome process for nascent dragons, each of which breaks the shell of an egg that contains it using a small tooth that soon falls after hatching. Young children lay in the shells of their eggs several hours after hatching before they started to make their way out of the nest, and during this stage of her life, they are helpless, prone to devouring large dragons and some other birds and predators. The length of 16 newborn dragons from one hatch reached 46.5 centimeters, and each weighed 105.1 grams.

Little dragons spend most of their early years in trees, where they are relatively safe from predators, including adult dragons that do not hide from eating between their sexes, where they’re young make up 10% of their food. It is possible that eating brown flesh of the genus carries in its folds benefits for the adult dragons so that it maintains their huge sizes, as medium-sized game is rare in the habitats of these animals so that the small dragons are attractive sediments for them, especially since the killing of big game is a dangerous process that may lead to the injury of the dragon with bridges. It is noted that when the young are approaching a carcass, they wallow in the excrement of their intestines, and may enter them, in order to leave an odor and repulsive effects on their bodies that prevent their relatives from being devoured by them. Komodo dragons reach puberty at eight or nine years of age and may last up to 30 years.

parthenogenesis

During the year 2005 AD, one of the captive dragons in the London Zoo placed a brood of eggs, although they were not collected with a male for two years. Scientists initially believed that it had been storing live sperm cells since its last intercourse with a male, and this is a biological adaptation in some animals known as “multiple fertilization”. On December 20, 2006 AD, the Chester Zoo in England announced that one of its captive dragons had laid a handful of unfertilized eggs, to be the second female to do so. The brood consisted of 11 eggs, seven of which were hatched, and produced males. Scientists from the University of Liverpool performed genetic tests on three of the eggs mentioned, and they were corrupted just by transferring them to an artificial nursery, and they found out that the mother, a female Chester Zoo, had never had a male sex, and a London animal case had appeared, For the case of the aforementioned female. On January 31, 2008, the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas, announced that one of its dragons laid eggs without intermarrying with a male, and this was the first zoo that documented spawning in the Komodo dragons in the United States. The garden administration said that it has two adult females, one of which laid 17 eggs during the days of May 19 and 20 (May 2007), that only two eggs were incubated and hatched, while it was decided not to hatch the rest of them due to the limited area of ​​the barn where the dragons were kept; the first of those eggs hatched on January 31, 2008, while the other hatched on February 1, and its results were male.

Komodo dragons have a ZW chromosome system for identifying their genera, unlike the XY system in mammals. And when the captive females born without the above-mentioned intermarriage have given birth to males, this proves that their unfertilized eggs ovulate the singularity of the chromosome formula (n) and then their chromosomes multiplied later (2n), through their fertilization with an arctic body, whether they are solvent, or by dichotomy, without being segmented Duplication of chromosomes was accomplished by an equitable division that was reduced in their ovaries. When a dragon of a ZW sexual chromosome is born in this way, it provides its offspring with only one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes, including one of their sexual chromosomes, and this individual chromosome set doubles inside the egg that forms and collapses without. Recipient eggs produce the male chromosome (ZZ) while the recipient eggs do not produce any chromosome W, which explains why only males are born virally in these organisms.

Some scholars have assumed that this proliferative adaptation allows the dragons to exploit and settle isolated areas that suffer from the presence of a biological environmental gap, such as islands, for example. In this way, a single female can produce offspring from a male with a male offspring with a male. The region becomes a dragon population that is viable and sustainable and plays the role of the main predator in it. Despite the positive aspects of this adaptation, zoos fear it and say that it harms the genetic (genetic) diversity of its dragons.

Human attacks

Humans rarely come under attack from these giant lizards, knowing that they caused the death of several people in the wild and zoos alike, when they attacked them. Some data from the Komodo National Park administration indicate that during the period between 1974 and 2012 (38 years), 24 attacks of dragons on humans were documented, including 5 fatal attacks, and that most of the victims were villagers inhabiting the park’s surroundings. Among the most prominent documented attacks:

  • In 2001, Dragon attacked American investigative journalist Phil Bronstein, the former husband of actress Sharon Stone, at the Los Angeles Zoo.
  • In 2007 AD, a dragon killed an 8-year-old boy, on Komodo Island.
  • In the year 2008 AD, 5 divers stranded on the shore of Hinca Island, and several dragons attacked them for two days, until an Indonesian ship rescued them and carried them to safety.
  • In 2009, a resident of Komodo Island, Muhammad Anwar, was killed by a dragon. Anwar, 31, was picking the Indian quince from the trees when he fell, so the two dragons rushed to him and killed him.
  • In 2009, a dragon entered the office of a tourist guide on the island of Harka, and lay under his table, then pounced on him when he entered the office, and he sustained many injuries, but he survived.
  • In May 2017, a 50-year-old Singaporean tourist was attacked on Komodo Island, and despite his escape, his left leg was seriously injured.

Retention

The Komodo dragon is considered a species with a minimum risk of extinction, according to the Red List of Threatened Species. Komodo National Park was established in 1980 to protect the Komodo dragons on a number of islands that inhabit them, including Komodo, Harka, and Badar. The Ye Woll and Wolo Tadu Reserves were later opened on Flores Island to help protect the Komodo dragon.

Dragons of Komodo avoid meeting people. Young dragons tend to move further away from humans, and they quickly escape to a hideout if a person approaches them less than 100 meters away. Adult dragons also decline when meeting a person if the distance is less than that. If Komodo dragon was raised, his reaction might be violent, as he released his mouth, whispered, and waved his tail. If his nuisance is raised then he may attack with his teeth. There are some tales of incidents in which the Komodo dragons attacked or killed people, but most of these stories are either undocumented or have been the result of the dragon’s need to defend himself. It is extremely rare for an attack of a Komodo dragon to occur without intentional excitement, as these dragons have lost their fear of humans.

The Komodo dragon is now at minimum risk of extinction due to many factors, including earthquakes, fires, environmental destruction, and a lack of prey due to hunting and illegal hunting of the Komodo dragon itself. According to Annex 1 of the CITES Agreement (the World Trade Treaty on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), trading in skins of Komodo dragons or any product derived from them is prohibited by law.

The number of Komodo dragons in the wild counted 3,222 in 2013 AD but decreased to 3,092 in 2014 and 3,014 in 2015. The number of tannins remained relatively stable on the two main islands (Komodo and Hernaka), while it shrank on smaller islands such as Noosa Kood and Philly Mustang, the predominant reason being the decrease in the numbers of animals that feed on them. A former population of dragons became extinct on the island of Gedar, where the last of them was seen in 1975. Among the researchers, it is assumed that the dragons became extinct from the island of Gedar as a direct result of the extinction of most of the creatures that they eat because of their human hunting.

In captivity

Dragon Komodo dragons have always been popular in zoos, where their size and fame draws the attention of visitors. However, it is rare for these reptiles to be kept in captivity because they are sensitive to epidemics and parasites after they are taken from the wild, and they reproduce slowly. In May 2009, there were 13 centers and zoo housing the Komodo dragons in Europe, two in Africa, 35 in North America, one in Singapore, and two in Australia.

The first Komodo dragon was displayed at the London Zoo in 1927. A similar dragon was exhibited at the National Zoo in Washington, DC, in the United States in 1934, but it only survived for two years. Other attempts have been made to keep the Komodo dragon in zoos, but the life span of this animal is too short to help, as it does not live for more than five years on average in zoos. Walter Offenberg’s studies, which published his findings in his book “The Behavioral Ecomodology in Ecology” in English: The Behavioral Ecology of the KomodoMonitor, helped to find more successful ways to breed Komodo dragons in captivity.

Researchers have observed a number of behaviors that Komodo dragons always exhibit while in captivity. In most cases, these animals can be tamed very quickly, and they are able to distinguish each person from the other and to know one of their herders without the other. It was also noticed in Komodo dragons that she liked to play with many things, such as shovels, food boxes, plastic rings and shoes, and her behavior does not seem to be the result of an attempt to search for food.

Even if the Komodo dragon appears calm and disciplined most of the time, it is always possible to suddenly be invoked, especially if an unknown person storms his area. In June 2001 AD, a Komodo dragon caused a serious injury to Phil Bronstein (who was – the husband of actress Sharon Stone) when he entered the Dragon Cage at the Los Angeles Zoo at the invitation of the Ranger. The dragon has bitten Bronstein’s barefoot because the guard asked him to take off his shoes and socks (because the guard thought that the color of the socks might excite the dragon because it was similar to the color of the white rats fed to gardeners). Bronstein succeeded in escaping from the dragon, but he had to undergo a surgery that was repeated while several tendons in his foot were attached.

Illegal traffic in dragons

There are reports from time to time that some illegal trafficking in these dragons occurred. This is an attempt seized by the Indonesian police during March 2019, when reports of a criminal network in Surabaya in East Java arrived, trying to smuggle several dragons out of the country, and when the police achieved this news, they caught in their families a group of people who showed that they were 41 small dragons is smuggled and shipped to several other countries in Southeast Asia via Singapore, for about Rs 500 (about $ 35,000) each. The police said that the animals had been smuggled from the eastern Nusa Tenggara Governorate through the port of Andi, on the island of Flores.

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