Egypt or (officially: the Arab Republic of Egypt) is an Arab country located in the northeastern corner of the continent of Africa, and it has an Asian extension, where the Sinai Peninsula is located within the continent of Asia, as it is a transcontinental country.

Egypt was distinguished by the presence of the Nile River, which divides its land, which was considered a catalyst for the establishment of an ancient civilization, and Egypt is located in a distinct geographical position that connects the continents of Asia and Africa and is linked to Europe via the Mediterranean. All of this led to the birth of a civilization known as the oldest civilization in human history.

The era of the ancient state

Egyptian civilization developed and the principles of a "central government" appeared around the year 3200 BC. Where King Mina united the two kingdoms of the north and south of Egypt. The era of this state witnessed a comprehensive renaissance in all aspects of life, as the Egyptians reached the hieroglyphic writing, meaning the sacred inscription, and Memphis was established as the first capital of the country. This era witnessed the construction of the first pyramid in Egypt and the world, the step pyramid of Djoser known as the Saqqara pyramid, which is the first stone structure in the world and was built in the year 2861 BC. With the development of art, agriculture, and industry, the Egyptians used the first land river fleet to transport their products. And it became an organized craft like other well-established crafts for which ancient Egypt was famous, and in this era families ruled from the Third Dynasty to the Sixth Dynasty.

The Pharaohs played football before 3000 BC, and they had competitions where the winning team was crowned with two carats of gold.

Middle Kingdom era

The Middle Kingdom (2040 - 1640 BC) precedes the first middle age, in which the dynasties ruled from the seventh to the tenth, which ended with the division of the country. Then came the era of the Middle Kingdom, which began with Pharaoh Mentuhotep II in 2065 BC, who was the Emir of Thebes and re-unified the country. Order was imposed, and the kings of the Middle Kingdom were interested in projects that were most beneficial to the people. Agriculture flourished and handicrafts developed. Egyptian artists and engineers produced a wonderful heritage that spread in Luxor, Fayoum, and Ain Shams.

Art and literature flourished in this era, and among the kings of this era were Amenemhat I, Amenemhat III, and this state was followed by the second middle age, in which the dynasties ruled from 13 to 17 and in which the middle state was weakened, which led to the raiding of tribes inhabiting the eastern Mediterranean region known as the Hyksos of Egypt and their conquest of areas In the north and center of the country.

The era of the modern state

(1580 - 1150 BC-AD) After King Ahmose I eliminated the Hyksos and expelled them outside the borders of the eastern state of Egypt, security and stability returned to the country. Egypt began a new era, the era of the modern state, and Egypt realized the importance of military force to protect the country, so a strong army was established To form a great empire that extended from the Euphrates River in the east to the Fourth Cataract on the Nile in the south So that Egypt became the first great power in human history, thus becoming a great sprawling empire and the oldest empire in history.


The kings and queens of the Eighteenth Dynasty gained worldwide fame in the fields of politics, war, culture, civilization, and religion Ahmose the hero of liberation, Amenhotep I the Just, who issued a law banning forced labor and establishing fair standards for wages and incentives Thutmose I the warrior who expanded the Egyptian borders in the north and south, spread education and expanded the conquest Mines and the mining industry Thutmose II the Eloquent and Thutmose III, the emperor with an outstanding military genius and the first great conqueror in the history of the world

And Thutmose IV, the diplomat who was the first to be interested in codifying and recording international treaties, and Amenhotep III, the richest king in the ancient world, who opened schools "houses of life" to spread education and plastic and applied arts.

Akhenaten was the first to call for the unification of the pharaonic gods and symbolized them with the sun disk, and Tutankhamun, who gained fame in the contemporary world.

Among the most famous queens of this family, for example, Queen Ahhotep, wife of King Seqenenre, Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, wife of Ahmose I, Queen Tiye of the People, wife of Amenhotep III, mother of Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten, and the great Queen Hatshepsut who ruled Egypt around the twenties. year old

During her reign, Egypt reached the highest peak in civilization, architecture, and international trade, when a commercial and scientific naval mission was sent to the country of Punt. It also built one of the greatest and most magnificent and luxurious architectural monuments, which is the Temple of Deir el-Bahari on the western shore of the Nile opposite Luxor. It is a unique temple in its design. It has no equal among all the temples of the ancient world and Karnak Temple, which is the largest temple in the ancient world.

This era also witnessed the "religious revolution of Akhenaten", where he called for the worship of one god and symbolized him with the disk of the sun and established a new capital for the country and named it "Akhitaton" · King Ramses II, who defeated the Hittites and concluded with their king the first peace treaty in history and built about 6 temples, the most famous of which is the Temple of Abu Semple, and Ramses III who repelled the attacks of the Libyans and the peoples of the Mediterranean.

Persian invasion of Egypt

After Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ascended the throne, he worked to establish the foundations of his rule and secure its borders, in which there were some disturbances. After four years, he began to think of occupying Egypt and annexing it to the Persian Empire. Cambyses II asked for the hand of the daughter of Ahmose II, but he refused and decided to send him the daughter of King Apris instead, which caused Cambyses to become very angry and hastened his occupation of Egypt.

During the reign of Ahmose II, Egypt was enjoying great progress and stability throughout his reign. Despite this, there were some weaknesses that seemed to pose a danger to them. The Egyptian army was its mainstay, many foreign mercenaries, which makes their loyalty questionable, as well as the grants that belonged to them. Ahmose made them the subject of envy and hatred from the Egyptians, and as a result of these matters, one of the leaders in the army, called Phanes, fled to the ranks of the Cambyses army and informed him of the plans and locations of the Egyptian army, as he indicated to him on the paths of the desert.

Ahmose tried to prepare for the expected attack by Cambyses by trying to make an alliance with the country of Cyprus and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who owned a large fleet in order to have maritime supremacy, but he failed as he failed him and joined the Persians.

Cambyses was able to secure water for his army from the leaders of the regions that his army would pass through in the southern desert, and in the meantime, Ahmose II died before Cambyses began his campaign and reached Egypt. His son Psamtik III took over the rule, succeeding his father.

He faced the Cambyses army after crossing the Arabian desert and arriving at the front fortress on Pelusium borders near Port Said, and Psamtik was defeated in that battle and withdrew to Memphis, and Cambyses continued his advance, reaching Ain Shams and then to Memphis, where he faced Psamtik again, but he was defeated and captured in this battle, and Cambyses seized the capital, and Egypt became a Persian state.

Greek era

Alexander the Great succeeded in defeating the Persians in Asia Minor and continued his conquests to India, where he used a naval team and Egyptian expeditionary crews, and before that, he succeeded in expelling the Persians from Egypt who did not resist the year 333 BC. Alexander himself was crowned king according to the method of the pharaohs and laid the foundation of the city of Alexandria and then made a pilgrimage to the Temple of Amun in Siwa Oasis, which was enjoying wide international fame at that time.

The rule of the Ptolemies, the dynasty that descended from Ptolemy, one of Alexander’s close leaders, Egypt from 333 until 30 BC, where 15 Ptolemaic kings took over the rule of Egypt. The independence of Egypt, as Rome sought to extend its influence over Egypt and eliminated the Ptolemies in the year 30 BC during the reign of Queen Cleopatra VII, who was the last king of Ptolemaic Egypt. Egypt's independence ended and it joined the Roman Empire.

Aspects of Egyptian civilization in the era of the Ptolemies

The Ptolemies in Alexandria built palaces and gardens, and Alexandria became a center of civilization, where it became famous in the field of art, science, industry, and trade. It was also the first port in the Mediterranean thanks to its famous lighthouse, which the Greeks considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

A great Greek civilization was established in Alexandria, represented in:

  • The University of Alexandria (ancient), which was established by the Ptolemies, thanks to the scholars of Alexandria University in reaching scientific facts about the rotation of the Earth around the sun and estimating the circumference of the Earth. The geographer and Manetho, the Egyptian historian
  • The Library of Alexandria and its Cultural Impact: The Ptolemies established in Alexandria a huge library that was considered the greatest library in the world, containing more than half a million papyrus scrolls. ·
  • The Ptolemies respected the Egyptians’ religion and offered sacrifices to Egyptian deities, and built temples for them such as Edfu Temple, Dendera Temple, and Philae Temples in Aswan.
  • Ptolemy, I included a number of annexes to Egypt, namely Cyrenaica, southern Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Cyprus.

Roman era

The Romans entered Egypt in the year 30 BC and it became one of its states. In fact, Egypt became one of the most important states of the Roman Empire due to its economic importance. Egypt was known at the time as the food basket of the Roman state.

The manufacture of glass, paper, and linen, in addition to perfumes and cosmetics, was also famous in Egypt.


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