The 12-hour operation at Soroka Medical Center in Beersheba last week took months of preparation, including scalp grafts for both.
Dozens of experts from Israel and abroad participated.
The girls, who have not been named, are said to be recovering well.
"They breathe and eat alone," Eldad Silberstein, head of plastic surgery at Soroka, told Israel's Channel 12 news channel.
This is the first time that this operation, which has been carried out only 20 times around the world, has been carried out in Israel.
Months before the surgery, inflatable silicone bags were inserted into their heads and periodically expanded to stretch the skin. The new skin was then used to seal their heads after the skulls were rebuilt.
Mickey Gideon, the chief neurosurgeon at Soroka, said the preparation also included creating a 3D virtual reality model for twins. "To our delight, everything went as we had hoped," he said.
The girls, who were born in August 2020, are expected to live a perfectly normal life.